The method of transferring data from one location to another is called data communication. There are various components involved in communication like, a sending machine that initiates transmission, a receiving machine to which the data has to reach and the transmission medium ( Wires, fiber optic cables, coaxial cables etc.) across which the data will travel.
There are three different ways in which data communication can happen
1. Simplex Form
2. Half duplex
3. Full Duplex
Now let us discuss each one in detail
Simplex communication form refers to communication that occus only in one direction.
A simplex form is used when all the signals has to flow in one direction. Such systm are often used in networks, where the receivers do not need to send any databack to the sender.
Simplex commnication form is not preffered bacause if there is any error in transmission then the receiver will not be able to communiccate this issue back to the sender.
Examples: A pager and television broadcast.
2. Half duplex communication
In a half duplex system a sender and receiver can communicate with each other but not simultaneously, the communication happens in one direction at a time.
once a sender a transmitted his information then receiver has chance to communicate back if required. If any error occurs initially then receiver can inform sender about the error and tell him to retransmit information that did not arrive correctly at receivers end.
Example: walkie -talkie in which you cannot talk and listen at the same time, unlike telephone. In walkie -talkie you first talk and then you need to wait and listen for reply.
3. Full Duplex
In full duplex system, both the workstations can communicate with each other simultaneously.
The workstations do not have to wait for their turn to transmit or receive data like in half duplex systems.
Example: Land-line telephone networks are full duplex, since they allow both callers to speak and be heard at the same time.